What’s Stock Trading?

Written By: Ehsan Jahandarpour

whats stock trading

The stock market, also known as the share or equity market, represents ownership claims on a business. Companies list their stocks on a public stock exchange. Those who are interested in becoming a part of this market should learn more about the different types of securities. These include stocks, bonds, and IPOs.

Secondary market

The secondary market is a platform where you can buy or sell stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and other securities. These transactions are highly liquid and have low costs. Secondary market transactions usually involve other investors, not the issuer of the stock. For example, if you want to buy shares of Larsen & Toubro, you must buy them from a third-party investor, not directly from the company. The same principle applies to buying and selling bonds. Some markets also include cryptocurrency exchanges.

The secondary market can help investors overcome liquidity problems. It allows them to sell their shares for cash easily when they need liquid cash. It also helps investors determine a fair valuation of a company. Prices are adjusted in a short period of time, in tune with new information about the company. Although the secondary market is subject to heavy regulation, it provides an important source of capital formation and liquidity for investors.

IPO market

The IPO market is a great place to buy and sell stocks. However, investors must be aware that IPOs are speculative investments and should not be taken lightly. In addition, the prices of IPOs may go up and down, depending on media coverage and other factors. The price of shares may increase significantly during the first day, but after that, it will likely drop. When this happens, investors may sell shares for a quick profit. This practice is known as “flipping” and is strongly discouraged by most brokerage firms.

Before 2009, the United States was the biggest issuer of IPOs, but in 2011, China has become the leading market for IPOs. Companies in China, including Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Shanghai, raised $73 billion, making it the leading market for IPOs.


Mark-up in stock trading is the difference between the lowest market price and the price a customer pays to buy or sell an investment. It is a legitimate method for brokers to earn a profit, but is not always disclosed to the customer. Mark-ups also occur in retail settings, where vendors increase the price of merchandise by a certain percentage.

The NASD has issued a Notice to Members that outlines its guidelines for markups and markdowns. The Notice addresses a number of critical issues that must be considered in determining the appropriate markups and markdowns.

Mark-down phases

When trading stocks, you should understand the importance of mark-up and mark-down phases. This is because prices cannot go forever without a pullback or correction. In addition, the markup phase is typically a period when stock prices are trending upwards. The markup phase will typically end once the amount of buyers has dwindled and more sellers enter the market. This phase curbs the upward momentum of the previous phase and moves the stock into a neutral range-bound trading area. This phase is a period of indecision for stock traders, but it does not necessarily signal the end of a trend.

At the end of the markup phase, the market’s attitude will change from neutral to exuberant. The price of a security will start to rise, and many corporations will increase their exposure. Investors who were on the fence about buying stocks during this stage will likely participate in the selling climax, creating significant selling power. During this phase, investors start to square long positions and initiate short positions. The market can become very volatile, and short selling can offer a great deal of return.

Tax-loss harvesting

Tax-loss harvesting when stock trading is a technique that allows you to minimize your income tax liability by selling stocks at a loss. The process requires some organization. It involves selling a specified amount of stock and offsetting it with gains made from other investments. This technique is most effective if you are in a lower tax bracket, but it can also provide a significant benefit for investors in higher tax brackets.

Tax-loss harvesting helps you to get the most from volatile markets and to maximize your after-tax returns. However, the amount of tax savings will vary depending on the market environment. A low-return year will offer more opportunities for harvesting while a high-return year will provide fewer opportunities. However, Goldman Sachs Asset Management believes that tax-loss harvesting can be effective in any market environment.

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