In law as practiced in countries that follow the English models, a pleading is a formal written statement of a party’s claims or defenses to another party’s claims in a civil action. The parties’ pleadings in a case define the issues to be adjudicated in the action. The Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) govern pleading in England and Wales. Federal Rules of Civil Procedure govern pleading in United States federal courts. Each state in the United States has its own statutes and rules that govern pleading in the courts of that state.