Written By: Ehsan Jahandarpour

Plagiarism is the “wrongful appropriation” and “stealing and publication” of another author’s “language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions” and the representation of them as one’s own original work.From the 1995 Random House Compact Unabridged Dictionary: use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one’s own original work qtd. in From the Oxford English Dictionary: the wrongful appropriation or purloining and publication as one’s own, of the ideas, or the expression of the ideas… of another qtd. in Lands (1999) The idea remains problematic with unclear definitions and unclear rules. The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe only in the 18th century, particularly with the Romantic movement. Plagiarism is considered academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics. It is subject to sanctions like penalties, suspension, and even expulsion. Recently, cases of ‘extreme plagiarism’ have been identified in academia. Plagiarism is not a crime per se but in academia and industry, it is a serious ethical offense, and cases of plagiarism can constitute copyright infringement.